In our history class we created histograms for iconics character during the industrial revolution. I worked with jose and we chose Sarah Guppy, an eclectic and modest English Engineer, who contributed to the design of Britain’s infrastructure including the Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol, and developed several domestic products.
Here I will show you a link with a mind map summarizing how the capitalism emerged.
Here I worked with Malena Millan, Victoria Quiroga and Lucia Frias.
Before reading the poem, do research on John Milton
-What kind of writer was he? Explain.
John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English metaphysical poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), written in blank verse.
Metaphysical poet, any of the poets in 17th-century England who inclined to the personal and intellectual complexity and concentration. Their work is a blend of emotion and intellectual ingenuity, characterized by conceit or “wit”. Metaphysical poetry is less concerned with expressing feeling than with analyzing it, with the poet exploring the recesses of his consciousness. The boldness of the literary devices used—especially obliquity, irony, and paradox—are often reinforced by a dramatic directness of language and by rhythms derived from that of living speech.
Milton’s poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day. Writing in English, Latin, Greek, and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime
-He wrote Paradise Lost. What is it about?
In 1667, he published Paradise Lost in 10 volumes. It is considered his greatest work and the greatest epic poem written in English. The free-verse poem tells the story of how Satan tempted Adam and Eve, and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. In 1671, he published Paradise Regained, in which Jesus overcomes Satan’s temptations, and Samson Agonistes, in which Samson first succumbs to temptation and then redeems himself. A revised, 12-volume version of Paradise Lost was published in 1674.
-Now, read the poem and say what you understand from it using your own words. (work on vocabulary)
Now came still Evening on, and Twilight gray
Had in her sober livery all things clad;
Silence accompanied; for beast and bird,
They to their grassy couch, these to their nests
Were slunk, all but the wakeful nightingale.
She all night longer her amorous descant sung:
Silence was now pleased. Now glowed the firmament
With living Saphirs; Hesperus, that led
The starry host, rode brightest, till the Moon,
Rising in clouded majesty, at length
Apparent queen, unveiled her peerless light,
And o’er the dark her silver mantle threw;
When Adam thus to Eve: “Fair consort, the hour
Of night, and all things now retired to rest
Mind us of like repose; since God hath set
Labour and rest, as day and night, to men
Successive, and the timely dew of sleep,
Now falling with soft slumberous weight, inclines
Our eye-lids. Other creatures all day long
Rove idle, unemployed, and less need rest;
Man hath his daily work of body or mind
Appointed, which declares his dignity,
And the regard of Heaven on all his ways;
While other animals unactive range,
And of their doings God takes no account.
Tomorrow, ere fresh morning streak the east
With first approach of light, we must be risen,
And at our pleasant labour, to reform
Yon flowery arbours, yonder alleys green,
Our walk at noon, with branches overgrown,
That mock our scant manuring, and require
More hands than ours to lop their wanton growth.
Those blossoms also, and those dropping gums,
That lie bestrown, unsightly and unsmooth,
Ask riddance, if we mean to tread with ease.
John Milton (1608-1674)
The poem is an extract from the epic poem ʼParadise Lost’ where Milton explores Adam and Eve’s spectacular mucking up of a lifetime in paradise, while also giving us his insight into the primordial war between God and Satan.
In this section, we are presented with a resplendent image of dusk, which in its majesty calms and soothes the world to sleep. Milton’s Adam reflects upon the nature of day and night and basically tells us that we need to enjoy our slumber as in the day we need to be working hard to maintain the perfection of God’s creation.
As well as giving us a reflection upon this specific part of the Bible, there is a general message that permeates about how we should live our lives.
Vocabulary: livery: a special uniform worn by a servant, an official, or a member of a City Company. grassy: covered with grass. clad: archaic or literary past participle of clothe. slink (slunk): move smoothly and quietly nightingale: migratory birds of Europe, noted for the melodious song of the male, given chiefly at night during the breeding season. descant: firmament: the vault of heaven; sky. Hesperus – another name for Venus (the planet); peerless: consort: slumberous: idle: yonder: scant: lop: wanton: bestrew: riddance:
“THE FIRST 12 LINES SHOW AN ANALOGY BETWEEN EVENING AND PARADISE” ACCOUNT FOR THIS.
The first 12 lines show an analogy between evening and paradise. The writes expresses that night is beautiful, it’s the time when you rest, when you are at peace. This description of the night is used to explain heaven, paradise. Both have similar features, such as resting, being at peace, being beautiful, and so the explanation of the evening is used to compare and explain heaven too; that’s why it is said to be an analogy.
SEMANTIC FIELD: “DAY/NIGHT – NATURE – JEWELS”. QUOTE TO PROVE THIS.
-Day/night: “twiglight” “lightingale” “moon” “dark” “wakeful” “silence” “descant”
-Nature: “lightingale” “beast” “bird” “nests”
_Jewelry: “sapphires” “glowed” “hesperus” “brightest” “majesty”
FIND AT LEAST THREE LITERARY DEVICES AND EXPLAIN THE IMAPCT ON THE READER. WHY ARE THEY USED?
- Enjambent is used to catch the reader’s attention, to keep him trapped and following the poem until the end.
- There is a very powerful analogy in the poem. There is an analogy between sleep and death. The poet is using the “night”, the “rest”, “noon” to explain a greater thing, heaven, death and afterlife. This is made because sometimes, to explain such a great and complex topic as death, it’s better to use analogies with normal, daily thing such as sleeping.
- Personification is also used in the poem. “Silence was now pleased.”. In this line we can see that there is a personification. SIlence is givene human characteristics, silence cannot be pleased.
IS THE SCENE JUST PROTRAYED AS A PEACEFUL NATURAL SCENE? COULD THIS ALSO BE A FUNERAL SCENE? ACCOUNT FOR YOUR ANSWERS.
In my opinion, it can be seen from both point of views, since an analogy is made. The peacful natural scene could be sleeping, that could also be accositaed with death. But, now, it depends on what do you think when you think about a funeral scene. Aren’t funerals natural scenes? I think that they completely are because we are all surely going to die so it’s natural. Aren’t funerals peaceful? In my opinion they also are, maybe the person that died was suffering from a horrible disease and now she is in rest, finally tranquil.
“light” “fresh morning” “labour” “eyelids” “retire” “risen” “work”
For this week’s virtual period in History we have to do some research on the creation and develop of the railways in Argentina and how Britain influenced on it and how.
During the National Organization period, Argentina began to outline a foreign policy favouring relations with Britain, which became the main buyer of Argentine raw materials and the major source of investment in the country.
Britain had always been interested in Spanish America in general and Argentina in particular and signed various treaties in the 1850s, which laid the groundwork for massive investment in transport, communications and navigation.
The Western Rail Company was formed in 1855 with mainly local capitals in order to build the first railway line. This line ran from Parque Station (where the Colón Opera House stands today) to Flores, eight miles to the west. This line was officially opened in August 1857 and was subsequently extended.
Several smaller rail companies (and lines) were created after the Western Rail, like the Northern Railway of Buenos Aires, the Buenos Aires and Ensenada Railway, the East Argentine Railway or the Buenos Aires to Campana Line. These companies were eventually absorbed by bigger British-owned outfits like the Central Argentine Railway Ltd. and the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway Co. Ltd. The latter quoted on the London Stock Exchange.
In 1948, President Perón decided to nationalise the seven railway companies operating in Argentina at the time. This was considered a turning point because it was thought to bring about economic independence. All it did was deepen the economic crises from the 1950s onwards by contributing heavily towards the national budget deficits and deteriorate the quality of the rail service and the rolling stock in a downward spiral.
This is a beautiful and moving poem filled with the romance of a woman who feels she has truly found her soul mate.
Read the poem
Thou who dost all my worldly thoughts employ,
Thou pleasing source of all my earthly joy,
Thou tenderest husband and thou dearest friend,
To thee this first, this last adieu I send!
At length the conqueror death asserts his right,
And will for ever veil me from thy sight;
He wooes me to him with a cheerful grace,
And not one terror clouds his meagre face;
He promises a lasting rest from pain,
And shews that all life’s fleeting joys are vain;
Th’ eternal scenes of heaven he sets in view,
And tells me that no other joys are true.
But love, fond love, would yet resist his power,
Would fain awhile defer the parting hour;
He brings thy mourning image to my eyes,
And would obstruct my journey to the skies.
But say, thou dearest, thou unwearied friend!
Say, should’st thou grieve to see my sorrows end?
Thou know’st a painful pilgrimage I’ve past;
And should’st thou grieve that rest is come at last?
Rather rejoice to see me shake off life,
And die as I have liv’d, thy faithful wife.
Mary Monck (?-1715)
Work in pairs and include:
-data about the writer and context of production
-whether this poem is based on her life or not
-themes and tones
-literary devices used by the poet to put across her message
-personal conclusion on the poem
Monck, Mary, a woman of great beauty and considerable poetical abilities, daughter of Lord Molesworth, was born in the latter half of the 17th century. She acquired an intimate knowledge of Latin, Italian, and Spanish literature. Chiefly residing in the country, one of a numerous family, she cultivated poetry more as an amusement than with a view to publication. She married George Monck of Dublin. After her early death from consumption, at Bath, in 1715, a volume of her poems and translations was published. Several of her pieces are given in Cibber’s Lives of the Poets.
The poem was written in 1715 in the end of enlightenment and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The poem is based on her life. She writes it in her death bed, as a farewell to her husband in 1715. However the poem was not published in that year, only after her death was any of her poetry published. The themes are companionship and friendship, rather than lust and passion since the poem is about true love. Also we see the impact of aging and mortality. The tone is generally soothing and gentle, with occasional emotional outbursts.
As for literary devices, the repetition of ‘all’ emphasises the fact that the husband is the only person in her life. We have an analogy presenting her struggle with illness as a war with death personified as a ‘conqueror’. She contrasts the ‘fleeting joys’ of life with the ‘eternal scenes of heaven’ in an attempt to convince herself and her husband that death should hold no fear and thus be welcomed.
Mary writes this poem to show all the love she felt for her husband, her best friend and companion. The poem is a farewell to the love of her life. She is writting this poem in sadness about leaving and being mortal, but at the same time the poem is a way to demonstrate to her husband how she loved him.
-choose a song that deals with the same topic, find a video and analyse it.
-Post it in your blog
We chose this song because we realised that both the song and poem are about a farewell to a lower, friend, etc. James Blunt says goodbye through a singed poem to his former lover, where as Mary Monck leaves written words to her husband to say her goodbyes.
The anguish of the earth absolves our eyes
Till beauty shines in all that we can see.
War is our scourge; yet war has made us wise,
And, fighting for our freedom, we are free.
Horror of wounds and anger at the foe,
And loss of things desired; all these must pass.
We are the happy legion, for we know
Time’s but a golden wind that shakes the grass.
There was an hour when we were loth to part
From life we longed to share no less than others.
Now, having claimed this heritage of heart,
What need we more, my comrades and my brothers?
The title of the poem is Absolution, which means “formal release from guilt, obligation, or punishment”. I believe that the choice of word for the title makes reference to the fact that he was seeking a release from war, he didn’t want to fight anymore.
In this poem Sassoon, who fought in World War 1, is parting to the front line with his comrades. On the first stanza he gives name to all the things that have to happen before the war he is fighting ends. Which for him would be a long time as he believed that the war was being prolonged by the government. In this first stanza he also names the things he fights for, his freedom for example. On the second stanza he shows with simple vocabulary some of the few things that happen during war, the wounds, the anger, the loss of friends and time. Finally in the third stanza he asks his comrades, if there is anything else that they need, they will have everything waiting for them in their return, and when they are gone they will each other.
3. Compare it to “Soldier, Rest!”
These two poems are very different. Mainly becuase Absolution is poem that takes place during the war, in which we can see soldiers parting to the front line, and where the author mentions what war involves, the feelings of the soldiers, and others. But “Soldier, Rest!” is a poem about death in war. In which the author is telling the soldier that he does not have to worry about fighting, bullets, waking up in the middle of the night to hear the sound of weapons, because now he will “Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking”. The being the main difference in the poems, we also see that both authors come from different centuries, and have different vocabularies. Sassoon, uses more simple vocabulary, and Scott uses a more vulgar, but not in a bad way, kind of vocabulary. He uses words as if he were a soldier talking to another comrade, telling that he does not have to worry about war anylonger, he may sleep forever.
4. Illustrate it with pictures and explain which different parts of the poem they illustrate.
For our Literature’s weekly virtual period we had to analyse a short story we had already read called “Games at Twilight” by Anita Desai. Here is the work I did.
Task 1: choose 10 quotes to analyze deep.
- …a poor, ruined and conquered city.
This quote is from the moment in which Ravi describes the shed that he is going to hide into, que describes it as a “poor” and “ruined” because inside the shed was full of rat holes, and spider webs, buckets with holes, and other valueless things that they owned. His mother only went inside the shed once a year, to fix the rat holes and remove the spider webs. Also he describes the shed as a “conquered city” because it had citizens of its, some of whom were the spiders and rats.
- …everything was still curtained and shuttered in a way that stifled the children, made them feel that their lungs were stuffed with cotton wool and their noses with dust…
This quote belong to the first paragraph of the story, is the introduction. In the paragraph we are told that the children’s mother wouldn’t let them go outside to play in the hot day, they were stuck inside the house, all of the blinds were shut, windows were closed, and they felt as “their lungs were stuffed with cotton wool and their noses with dust”. This phrase is to describe how the children were feeling in the hot day, they were dying basically, it was disgusting to feel the heat up their nose and down their lungs.
- …he had been forgotten, left out and he would not join them now.
This quote is from the final paragraph of the story. Ravi is feeling the ignominy of being forgotten. He cannot face it. He refuses to play with the other children to the funeral game, he wanted a victory, but he was so blinded by the feeling of it, that he actually forgot what he had to do to achieve it. Now he won’t play with the other children, he just laid on the grass, seeing his triumph fade away like a bad memory.
- …his voice broke with rage and pity at the disgrace of it all and he felt himself flooded with tears and misery.
This quote is from the moment in which Ravi comes out of the shed to claim he’s longed for victory, the moment he had been playing over and over in his head. But when he makes it through to the veranda and finally calls out his triumph, he realizes that the children were no longer playing hide and seek, they had changed the game, forgotten about him. It was as if his dream was thrown into the floor and crushed. He couldn’t believe, let alone face it. This quote shows exactly that feeling, the disgrace and the pity, the misery and pain of not having won.
- All this time no one had remembered Ravi.
This is when we are told that throughout the long hours that Rvi had been hiding in the shed, thinking about how to claim his victory, his family had moved on with their lives as any other ordinary afternoon, and no one had even noticed that he was missing. The children had ended and started many games, the parents had come back from work, washed their car, watered the plants. And when Ravi came out from his hiding to realize that no one had even noticed him gone, he couldn’t believe it. That moment is where this quote is taking us, to when Ravi realized he had been forgotten by his family.
- He hugged his knees together and smiled to himself almost shyly at the thought of so much victory, such laurels.
In this quote he imagine the sensation of winning this war in hide and seek and because of it he started feeling the adrenaline of the victory. He also thought about overcome his opponents specially Raghu who was the oldest one and this is why he started feeling this excitement and was very anxious about it. All that he wanted at this part of the story was to try that taste of victory and feel superior to others by showing his abilities in this game which was very important for him. He wanted to prove that he could do it!
- Ravi shook, then shivered with delight, with self-congratulation.
This quote described Ravi’s feeling at the middle of the story. It says that Ravi was a little bit scared but also happy because he hide in an interesting place where it was difficult to be seen. He was a little bit nervous because of the adrenaline of run and hide in some other place as he had the risk that he could be seen. He was feeling the victory as he could hide in an another place. This place was a little bit dark and with some insects but it was a very intelligent position for the game and he was very brave for running up the there and risking his life.
- The scent of earth receiving water, slaking its thirst in great gulps and releasing that green scent of freshness, coolness.
This quote describes the the moment of the twilight and it admired how is nature formed by and Ali think it showed the part of every story when the end is coming soon and something would change everything as it is all the scenery relax and quiet. This was the moment when Ravi realized the time of the day it was as he would see the twilight and it’s show. Victory was so near that he could also feel it! The end was coming and he was prepared for it !
- What fun if they were all found and caught – he alone left unconquered!
This phrase took part of Ravi’s objective in this game. He wanted to win! But not sharing the victory with another partner, he wished to be the only champion in this game and have all the triumph and happiness for himself. This quote showed how awesome it would be if all his opponents ,who ,by the way were his brothers and sisters, were caught and lose the game. If this happened he would have more chances to win and he will be invictus. This quote also shows how a kid always wants to win and how he would find his own happiness just by winning a game against his family without receiving any material prize, only honor and triumph.
- He wanted victory and triumph- not a funeral.
In this quote we can see that the narrator is describing Ravi’s thoughts. He didn’t want to be a loser. He wanted to win this game. When you are a kid games like hide and seek are taking very seriously, in this case the protagonist saw this game as if it was life or death. If Ravi wins he will be safe and with triumph and honor but if he lose this game he will be death and having a “funeral”. This thoughts helped him to continue playing
Task 2: Focus on the theory of Rite of Passage and write a paragraph commenting on this.
The theory of rite of Passage consists of five elements, the first one being the object of desire that the protagonist cannot get, in our case for Ravi the object he could not obtain was the victory, the possibility to defeat Raghu. The second element is “trespassing” when the children go outside and play in the veranda despite of the fact that their mother told them they could not do so. The third element is the “dare or challenge” which in our case is the entering of Ravi to the shed, despite of it being a dark and scary place. The fourth element in Rite of Passage is the “mischief” that should be owned up, but we do not see this element present in the story , because Ravi does respond to the fact of having lost, in a mature way, he does not own up to it. The final element is “acceptance” which does not occur in this story, Ravi cannot accept the fact that he has lost and that the game is over. So we see that he has not truly grown up, the Rite of Passage has not been completed and he has not grown at all, he is still a kid.
1- Marie Antoinette is sometimes referred to as “The Teenage Queen”. What attitudes in the movie can show that? In the movie you can clearly see how the character behave as a teenager. Her main activity was going and organizing parties even being drunk all the time. Furthermore, she had a very characteristic childish personality. Last but not least, she broke some rules and also, she cheated on her husband.
2- After her first child is born she shows many changes in her attitude and lifestyle. How? Provide examples. Why do you think that happens?
When her first child was born, she decided to move to the farm. She used her new house and place to teached her daughter how to treat animals and flowers. This new life was helpful to her personality because she seemed to get a little bit more mature, although she couldn’t abandon the party.
3- Some historians have often suggested that Marie Antoinette’s behaviour helped encourage agitation in the people at the beginning of the Revolution. Can you find any instances in the movie that confirm or deny this claim?
It is true that she might have cause agitation because of her extravagance and excess spending on image stuff such as cloth, jewels, etc. In the movie this is shown very clearly every time she was getting dress.
4- Towards the end of the movie, we see a more mature woman. How does she show she has somehow stopped being “The Teenage Queen”?
In the movie is shown that she stopped being “The Teenage Queen” when the people of france attack Versailles and she thanked over and decided to stay by her husband although he begged her to leave with the kids. She wanted to support him. This scene shows a big change in her personality and how maturity and responsibility took place in her life.
The following activity was about an end of unit assignment. I work with Jose Tasca and Tin Reynal.
- Why was Napoleon able to rise to power by 1799?
- What does Napoleon’s rise to power say about the weaknesses of the French Revolution?
- ‘Napoleon’s domestic policies did more to increase his power than extend liberty in France’. How far do you agree with this claim?
- By 1799, the directory was in disarray. Together with two directors, Napoleon proposed several changes to the 1795 constitution. When these were rejected Napoleon called on his loyal soldiers to impose his will. On 9 november 1799, he staged a coup and overthrow the Directory. He established a Consulate, with himself as chief of the three consuls. This lasted until he proclaimed himself emperor in 1804.
- The French Revolution left big consequences and because of this big hole in the country Napoleon find an opportunity to take the power. As there were many people with different views they couldn’t decide what to do. Not leaving aside, the economic situation was not good so people were at the border of collapsing due to hunger and poverty. French people from the different types of groups were lost as they didn’t have someone to follow as no reference was in the country. As France was suffering from all these, Napoleon as I said before, find an opportunity to rise and this shows clearly how weak the French Revolution left the country.
- After the long period of instability in France, Napoleon seemed to acknowledge the importance of maintaining his power, influence and control over France and the French people. Napoleon was very able in this regard as it is important to make the people support him and to limit opposition. Napoleon maintained his power in many different ways, rewarding people that supported him, repressing people who didn’t, censoring material that would harm his regime and producing other material to boost its popularity. He also controlled things which were important for everyday people like religion, education, finance and backed it all up by keeping the military under his support. With the Domestic policies that he introduced in France, he managed to widely gain power while “correctly and appropriately” restoring the order of the country, and achieving the aims of liberty, equality, and fraternity, which were partly and subjectively attained. One of the main ones was to sign a concordat with the Catholic Church that, while restoring some of the church’s power, meant that the church gave up its ability to control politics in France. Instead, the Vatican recognized the power of the Republic and officially relinquished lands that the church had lost earlier in the French Revolution. The concordat also allowed freedom of religion in France. While Catholicism was the religion of the majority of people in France, it was not the religion of the state. Also, The Napoleonic Code established five codes of laws: civil codes, commercial codes, penal codes, and codes of criminal and civil procedures. These codes provided all French citizens with the same basic rights and disallowed privileges based on birth. All citizens were allowed freedom of religion and the right to apply for government positions. Napoleon also established a new educational system that afforded some education to girls (though not on the same level as boys). While primary schools were the responsibility of local areas, the state took over the control of secondary schools (while some were still operated by the church). Beyond secondary schools, 30 lycées were established, and scholarships were offered to make sure that talented students from all classes were able to secure the education necessary for future careers in government and the military.